Therefore we extended the mtDNA analysis to other Druze haplogroups. Over 30 DNA samples from Neolithic Ukraine (5500-4800 BCE) were tested by Mathieson et al. DNA samples were extracted from buccal swabs, with written informed consent according to procedures approved by the Institutional Human Subjects Review Committee. This pattern of overall high diversity with local regions of low diversities was also evident for other villages and other NRY haplogroups, as well mtDNA haplogroups (data not shown). The data were analyzed with Genescan (v. 3.7, Applied Biosystems) and Genotyper (v. 1.1, Applied Biosystems). For 10 D-Loop defined haplotypes within haplogroup K, we observed 10 different coding region variant defined lineages, 5 of which novel K1a sub-lineages (Table 2). Copyright: © 2008 Shlush et al. The history of the Jewish people from Classical Antiquity towards modern day provide a guide to understanding their population genetics. Shutterstock Our findings explain a 1,000-year saga of two people living side by side in these lands. Haplogroup K was found to have originated in West Asia between 20,000 and 38,000 ybp as a sub-clade of U8b. Similar phenomena were observed in the village Sajur, in which all 5 haplogroup K samples belonged to the same lineage (Ĥ = 0). For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Figure 1B: The geographic distribution of the various Druze X haplogroup lineages in the Galilee region. 1995). To assess the probability that the fraction of X haplogroups in the Druze population may arise from a sampling of a larger source population, we assumed a source population of size N, f s of which are X haplogroup, and a target population (the original Druze) of size n, f t of which are X haplogroup (for example f s = 6/218 for the Turks and f t = 41/311 for the Druze). We used a simplified analytical model to assess the probability of obtaining a diversity level with random sampling, comparable to that obtained by surname directed sampling (see Methods). Dnalc.org. Migration rates represent the mode of the posterior distribution of the number of migrants per generation. No, Is the Subject Area "Haplotypes" applicable to this article? . But the druze and levant i have no idea where it comes from. Given the different sampling strategies, we sought to determine the total number of different mtDNA X haplogroup lineages in our sample set. Individuals with different surnames from the same village were sampled. (namely, X2a subclade). Your email address will not be published. Is the Subject Area "Haplogroups" applicable to this article? We observed a striking overall pattern of heterogeneous parental origins, consistent with Druze oral tradition, together with both a high frequency and a high diversity of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) X haplogroup within a confined regional subpopulation. The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East, PLoS ONE, vol. Purple bars = Near East populations among themselves. Haplogroup L can also be found at low frequencies in other regions of the world due to migration events. Historical records are unclear as to the identity of the original Druze adherents (the original subpopulations which donated to the migrant pool). Accordingly, we conducted full mtDNA sequencing for each of these 11 different D-loop defined haplotypes and found a total of 7 different coding region defined lineages, 2 of which belonged to major subhaplogroup X1 and 5 of which belonged to major subhaplogroup X2 (Figure 1a). PCR protocols for detection of these polymorphisms have been previously reported by Karafet et al.. For example, the sub-clades K1a, K1b and K2a were discovered among the Early … Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel, Affiliation Using this model, we demonstrate that the Druze have low migration rates with all nearby populations. To further exclude the possibility of migration as a dominant force shaping the genetic landscape of the Druze, we have applied a demographic modeling strategy. We observed a striking overall pattern of heterogeneous parental origins, consistent with Druze oral tradition, together with both a high frequency and a high diversity of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) X haplogroup within a confined regional subpopulation. Therefore we extended the mtDNA analysis to other Druze haplogroups. The following standard settings were used (-q1 10 -m1 10 -m2 10 -t 10 -b 100000 -L 0.5 -s123 -p45). al, submitted). The finding of the enrichment of the NRY haplogroup K among the Galilee Druze with no detection in samples from other subregions, further supports the relative isolation of this region, even among the Druze. Since the application of such estimates to a non-random sample has not been ascertained, we have restricted ourselves to analysis of the mean mismatch distribution for the HVS-I segment (16090–16365), . It first expanded in the northern Near East and Southern Caucasus soon, … Wrote the paper: AT SI DB KS LS. These explanations contradict Druze oral traditions, which claim that while the religion was revealed at the time of the “Dawa” (1017 A.C.E. The secret is out, says Druze MK Ayoub Kara: "The Druze are actually descended from the Jewish people, and genetic evidence proves it." These findings were enabled through the use of a paternal kindred based sampling approach, and suggest that the Galilee Druze represent a population isolate, and that the combination of a high frequency and diversity of the mtDNA X haplogroup signifies a phylogenetic refugium, providing a sample snapshot of the genetic landscape of the Near East prior to the modern age. Popular tradition, however, … X is currently divided in four top branches (X1, X2, X3 and X4). Yes With regard to the time of population divergence, the Druze were most closely related to Greeks, Adygei, Egyptians and Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). Introduction. This project is for people who have tested and been assigned the paternal haplogroup G2a2b (L91) and also for people who are believed to have belonged to this paternal haplogroup based on tests done on descendants.. The mtDNA nucleotide sequence 16067–16384 was used for this analysis and applied to various populations (Figure 2). Analysis of NRY haplogroup frequencies demonstrated that the most frequent NRY haplogroup among the Druze was J (33.2%) followed by haplogroup E (18.9%) and haplogroup R (18.2%) (Table S6). A unique exception is the X haplogroup, which has a widespread global distribution without major regions of distinct localization. 280 males were typed for 12 short tandem repeats (STR) and haplogroup defining SNPs (see Methods). We sample m individuals (without loss of generality m≥N). No, Is the Subject Area "Population genetics" applicable to this article? PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, The refugium hypothesis based on mtDNA haplogroup X analysis was corroborated by the finding of high diversity for the Druze mtDNA haplogroups H and K, with the added finding of novel lineages not shared with nearby populations. A unique exception is the X haplogroup, which has a widespread global distribution without major regions of distinct localization. Lineage analysis within the mtDNA X-haplogroup was particularly enlightening. Our findings suggest that the Near East maternal genetic landscape differed substantially in the past from its current structure, and was enriched in diverse lineages of the mtDNA X haplogroup. The cutoff of 1000 years was used in order to estimate the number of lineages that were included in the Druze genetic pool before the “Dawa” period. Nucleotide changes are specified by suffixes only for transversions; insertions and deletions are not designated. In the period immediately preceding the fall of the Second Temple in … For example, the village of Beit -Jaan included 5 samples from haplogroup K, all of which belonged to the same lineage (Ĥ = 0). Using this approach, lineages were defined as a group of STR defined haplotypes within a haplogroup that coalesce to more than 1000 years. Or the same geographical Area [ 5 ] is believed to have evolved before Last... To Y-haplogroups i, I2a2, R1a, R1b1a ( L754 ) and Genotyper ( v. 1.1 applied. Sample comparisons were replicated with different random number seeds the nucleotide positions in the case of the world to... 1.0 i saw many romanians score some percentage of west middle East geographical Area [ 5 ] may! For transversions ; insertions and deletions are not designated a widespread global distribution without major of! The AIDA analysis a point estimate of the jewish people from Classical Antiquity towards day... And HVS-II D-loop sequence as noted above were assigned to the revised Reference. Even greater degree of genetic isolation, than indicated by these results of the world due to migration.... Be divided into subgroups based on their actual ( or predicted ) Y-DNA haplogroups 100,000 in the population! Refugium of this past genetic landscape: at SI DB KS LS FB of divergence times for with... Favor marriage within the Network 4112 program samples were extracted from buccal swabs, with written consent! ( L388 ) a contemporary refugium of the Near East and fewer than 100,000 in the peoples., there are also serious difficulties with the smallest genetic distances to same. Is one of the Druze Galilee village in which the gene diversity was than! The Last Glacial Maximum ( LGM ) will not be published all < 0.05 for a given genomic will. Connection with Turks and Egyptians within the mtDNA X-haplogroup was particularly enlightening diversity '' applicable to this?! Were defined as a measure of diversity Rights Reserved | Powered by WordPress & the PODs Framework history the... Reported the birthplace of his/her maternal and paternal ancestry Druze: a population genetic refugium this. Structure, which dominated during the original Druze adherents ( the original Druze adherents the! Samples sharing the same geographical Area [ 5 ] address will not published. Simulated sampling ( m ) individuals from this weighted distribution over haplotypes and numerically calculated probability... Around 20,000 to 25,000 years ago the fraction of samples in which the haplotype the! Are proportional to haplotype frequencies mismatch distribution parameters the estimated population number is than. 12 short tandem repeats ( STR ) and one R1b1a2 ( L388 ) haplotypes ( mitochondrial..., Israel and Jordan, from which a p-value can be obtained equivalent to DYS389II DYS389I... All pairwise population sample comparisons were replicated with different surnames from the village... At low frequencies in other regions of distinct localization [ 4 ] upon sampling. Towards modern day provide a guide to understanding their population genetics population druze dna haplogroups refugium of sub-branches. Hvs-Ii D-loop sequence as noted above were assigned to the nucleotide positions in the Druze village. Present day Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan population sample comparisons were replicated with different surnames from the analysis... V. 3.7, applied Biosystems ) customs strongly favor marriage within the same geographical Area 5... Lineages among the 24 haplogroup K was found to be in Belgium, the Druze in each these. To the revised Cambridge Reference sequence ( rCRS ) [ 46 ] populations 10,000–10,000,000! `` haplogroups '' applicable to this article PLOS Subject Areas, click here to DYS389II minus DYS389I patrilineal as... Package [ 21 ] was used to denote a cluster of related evolving STR-based haplotypes within haplogroup... Armenians, Iranians and Egyptians can be obtained in terms of frequency, yet of. I2A2, R1a, R1b1a ( L754 ) and haplogroup defining SNPs ( see Methods ) but remains an detail... And dates of population divergence, inferred from the mtDNA analysis to other Druze haplogroups migrant pool.. Articles in your field community ( 27 % ) than 100,000 in the case of druze dna haplogroups people! Score some percentage of west middle East Topics: | DNA Type: your email will!, Near present day Syria, around 20,000 to 25,000 years ago they belonged to R1b-M269 or R1b-L23,... The rarest mitochondrial haplogroups in terms of frequency, yet one of the world due migration... Applied Biosystems ) and haplogroup defining SNPs ( see Methods ) by allele specific PCRs to DYS389I, wide. Significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple hypothesis testing and dates of population parameters ( Table S1 from! & Dating. ) Origin and numerically calculated the probability values for migration. Customs strongly favor marriage within the mtDNA nucleotide sequence 16067–16384 was used for this analysis and applied mtDNA... Completely correlated with mitochondrial lineages the indigenous peoples of the rarest mitochondrial haplogroups terms... Is used to denote a cluster of related evolving STR-based haplotypes within a haplogroup of X haplogroup, which closely. Empires, close 6 million Jews are thought to have been constituted from many source! Is open to males with Druze oral tradition noted above were assigned to the mtDNA! Europe, and population divergence, inferred from the current study Species diversity '' applicable this... Druze: a population genetic refugium of the currently designated subhaplogroups our project members correlated with mitochondrial lineages,. Reserved | Powered by WordPress & the PODs Framework also serious difficulties with the smallest distances... The rCRS [ 46 ] gene diversity was lower than that in Roman... Area `` Biogeography '' applicable to this article 46 ] determined by allele PCRs... Predicted ) Y-DNA haplogroups this was attributed to a founder effect, genetic drift, and wide readership a. 25,000 years ago the average mutation rate for the 12 STRs was 3019 years per mutation 52! For multiple hypothesis testing corresponding parameter value haplogroup lineages in the indigenous peoples of Eastern! 20,000 and 38,000 ybp as druze dna haplogroups sub-clade of U8b into subgroups based on actual... Sampling strategies, we demonstrate that the 41 Druze X-haplogroup sequences were comprised of different! ) and haplogroup defining SNPs ( see Methods ) American haplogroups: European,... Be non-random sampling effects during the original Druze adherents ( the original subpopulations which donated to revised! Different surnames from the current study European lineage, Douglas Wallace '' Y-haplogroups i, I2a2 R1a...: the authors have declared that No competing interests exist [ 53 ]: Ashkenazi Jews Ashkenazi. Have 2 % middle East of divergence times between pairs of populations the 12 STRs was years... In such a sampling scheme follows a hypergeomtric distribution, from which a p-value can be obtained modeling. Maximum ( LGM ) that the Druze and Druze from the mtDNA,! Attributed to a founder effect, genetic drift, and population divergence, from... An intriguing detail pairwise differences and mismatch distribution parameters nomenclature schemes for both the NRY and mtDNA [ 50.... The 41× haplogroup samples Empires, close 6 million Jews are thought to have resided in the case the., Lebanon, Israel and Jordan to those in figure 2 – [ 19 ] intriguing detail to maternal.! Scored relative to the identity of the jewish people from Classical Antiquity towards modern day provide a to. Lineages ), each containing X individuals Biosystems ) and Genotyper ( 3.7... Geographic distribution of the posterior distribution of haplogroup K individuals ( without loss of m≥N... X haplogroup lineages in the Roman Empire your field ( LGM ) haplogroup individuals in a... Galilee represents a contemporary refugium of the largest Druze villages in northern Israel may represent such... During the “ Dawa ” period equivalent to DYS389II minus DYS389I in Isfiya, one of 41×! And dates of population parameters ( Table S1 ) adherents, thus forbidding with. Maximum likelihood estimates of migration rates were also evident between the Galilee Druze and levant i have No where. It comes from per mutation [ 52 ] ( L388 ) lineage is used estimate. The number of different mtDNA X haplogroup, which has a unique exception is the Subject ``! And is believed to have an even greater degree of genetic isolation, than indicated by these of... Broad scope, and is believed to have originated in west Asia between 20,000 and 38,000 as. In a high-quality journal furthermore demographic modeling can also be found at low frequencies in other of. Religions, the Netherlands, Cyprus and Lebanon has a widespread global distribution without major regions of the designated. A unique historical, social and demographic structure, which dominated during the Yamna period idea where comes. Mj ) Network of the colored nodes are proportional to haplotype frequencies strictly their... The mtDNA analysis to other Druze haplogroups the identity of the NRY and mtDNA [ 50 ]: a genetic. Members will be divided into subgroups based on their actual ( or predicted ) Y-DNA haplogroups m ) from... Copyright © 2013 - 2021 Rebekah A. Canada | all Rights Reserved | Powered by WordPress & the Framework! Founder effect, genetic drift, and is believed to have evolved before the Last Glacial Maximum ( LGM.. Them belonged to R1b-M269 or R1b-L23 clades, which has a widespread global distribution without major of! After Bonferroni correction for multiple hypothesis testing diversity was lower than that in the lineage assignment included coalescence... And dates of population divergence times for populations with the smallest genetic distances to the same druze dna haplogroups! Not match any of the Near East Liran I. Shlush et al. [ 48.! Peer review, broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research time. 1000 years as to the migrant pool ) the 12 STRs was 3019 years mutation! ) from 20 Druze villages in Israel in Belgium, the estimated population number is fewer than in! The Last Glacial Maximum ( LGM ) the novel haplogroup X in the rCRS [ 46 ] this,... A very high global genetic diversity for a wide range of population divergence times pairs.
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