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mckinsey mobility investments

We have analyzed the investment landscape since 2010 along the four ACES trends: autonomous driving, connectivity, electrification, and smart mobility. People create and sustain change. Eric Hannon, Colin McKerracher, Itamar Orlandi, and Surya Ramkumar, “An integrated perspective on the future of mobility,” October 2016. In the U.S. we see enormous potential to attract investment from the private sector, leveraging public investments. This article was edited by Belinda Yu, an assistant managing editor in the Atlanta office. Unleash their potential. Against a backdrop of mass layoffs, disrupted travel, and public-transit ridership down 70 to 90 percent in the world’s major cities, shared mobility—and mobility in general—is struggling. By looking forward, cities and rail operators can create a mobility system that meets the current challenge—and serves the passengers not only of this century but also the next. SOURCE: McKinsey future-of -mobility consumer survey, 2018. While researchers work to develop a vaccine, with the threat of infection looming, consumers are newly refocused on health. Learn about One commercial vehicle player is cooperating with an industry consortium in Austria to set up a system of fully electric last-mile delivery. See, for example, Eric Hannon, Colin McKerracher, Itamar Orlandi, and Surya Ramkumar, “An integrated perspective on the future of mobility,” October 2016; Shannon Bouton, Eric Hannon, Stefan Knupfer, and Surya Ramkumar, “The future(s) of mobility: How cities can benefit,” June 2017; and Eric Hannon, Stefan Knupfer, Sebastian Stern, and Jan Tijs Nijssen, “The road to seamless urban mobility,” McKinsey Quarterly, January 2019. More and more, companies are putting their people first to unlock competitive advantage and career mobility. This role would allow cities or rail operators to continue influencing the mobility system as it evolves. Based on M&A activities, many expect the industry’s consolidation to continue—especially in micromobility. In every case, cities should train their focus on projects that can adapt as technology evolves. These developments could have implications for other places facing similar economic, demographic, and mobility trends. Overall, our Start-up and Investment Landscape Analysis (SILA) tool reveals significant investment activities in new mobility technologies—nearly $111 billion in disclosed transactions since 2010 in more than 1,000 companies across ten technology clusters (Exhibit 1). Reinvent your business. Gains from infrastructure, such as transportation, power and water, may be fully realized only when projects generate true public benefits, a fact that makes it difficult for many governments — including the United States — to select the right projects, say experts in a new McKinsey & Company report released this month. Supplier consolidation for scale. Such activities suggest that cities could become decisive actors shaping mobility’s future. “Swope offers another Nashville transit plan: Autonomous vehicles, stacked interstates,”. By 2025, we estimate, cities and rail operators will spend nearly $100 billion on new rolling stock. Lyft is running pilots with cities in California, Colorado, and Florida to provide subsidized first–last mile connections to transit stops. Such teamwork could take different forms. Meet our experts at the McKinsey Center for Future Mobility who are helping industry leaders and policy makers shape the future of mobility. Elijah Chiland, “Here’s how LA’s transit network changed over the last decade,” Curbed, December 5, 2019, la.curbed.com. With the pandemic, health considerations are more important. One example of this is in the airline industry. The pandemic could also become a catalyst for more changes, as cities pursue their own, largely uncoordinated agendas. McKinsey Global Institute. Now reducing the risk of infections is the top reason many travelers make those choices, overtaking even destination time in importance (Exhibit 1). we see a larger reliance on public transit and rail, while in major cities of South Asia, particularly those already dependent on public transit to a considerable degree, that is not likely to change significantly by 2030. Companies will base new offerings on innovation and regulation. hereLearn more about cookies, Opens in new This is a rule of thumb, however, not a scientific principle; specific circumstances might point to a different decision. The authors are members of the McKinsey Center for Future Mobility. If you would like information about this content we will be happy to work with you. See Eric Hannon, Stefan Knupfer, Sebastian Stern, Ben Sumers, and Jan Tijs Nijssen. In New York, for example, the competition from e-hailing, together with other factors (such as poor service levels), caused the city to lower its forecast for subway ridership by nearly 10 percent from 2015–19 and has cost hundreds of millions of dollars in lost revenue. This is a tall order. So it’s complicated. Cross-industry cooperation could be the key to attaining this balance. And because rail is physically separate from other transport modes, it is typically faster, particularly during rush hour. Hamburg, Germany, for example, plans to have some kind of public-transportation option within five minutes of anywhere in the city by 2029. Cities and government planners are constantly making mobility decisions. Some automakers are leading the way in this regard by delivering new cars directly to customers’ homes. In this article, we describe what the next normal in mobility could look like and highlight the trends that will define the competitive and technological landscape. If autonomous vehicles emerge with little or no regulation, the McKinsey Center for Future Mobility estimates that congestion could rise by 15 percent by 2030 as people shift from shared modes, such as buses or rail. Congestion pricing might be more successful coupled with investments in convenient, accessible, and fast public transport. While this is an exceptional case due to high demand, a third-party evaluation found that our Mumbai-Pune Hyperloop Project could be funded 100% by private capital. 1 Figures may not sum to 100%, because of rounding. Digital upends old models. After that, the industry will probably see a partial consolidation, triggering an eventual increase in cooperative agreements. 12. One realistic scenario has tech players seizing the moment to secure their stakes in the mobility industry. New players from the technology and connectivity sectors are entering the business, and the traditional auto value chain is under threat. In addition, cities might not repeal all of the prior restrictions on private vehicles, thus accelerating the trend toward shared mobility. Consequently, transport options that guarantee physical distancing will win out over others. 10 Many of these differences are likely to remain in the months ahead. Martin Hattrup-Silberberg is an expert in McKinsey’s Dusseldorf office, Saskia Hausler is a specialist in the Stuttgart office, Kersten Heineke is a partner in the Frankfurt office, Nicholas Laverty is a solution leader in the Detroit office, Timo Möller is a partner in the Cologne office, Dennis Schwedhelm is a senior expert in the Munich office, and Ting Wu is a partner in the Shenzhen office. 5. The city of Los Angeles developed and published a “mobility data specification” with standards and application programming interface (API) frameworks that enable municipalities to take in and analyze mobility providers’ data, in real time, creating a powerful tool for cities looking to understand and oversee new services. However, in the aftermath of the most critical stage of the pandemic, regulators will likely increase their influence over mobility to either accelerate the disruption or slow it down. Done right, a master plan improves a system’s design while helping the public to see the value of new investments. Exhibit 2 Web 2019 Start me up: Where mobility investments are going Exhibit 2 of 5 Total disclosed investment amount since 20101 1Sample of 1,183 companies.Using selected keywords and sample start-ups, we were able to identify a set of similar companies according to text-similarity algorithms (similarity to companies’ Rail has other advantages too. Of these, walking and biking are currently the most attractive options. But huge questions remain about how technology, demographics, economics, and other factors will play out, so cities and rail operators are understandably tempted to duck the matter and delay taking action on mobility. While hit hard by the lockdown, shared mobility’s future appears intact. We strive to provide individuals with disabilities equal access to our website. The authors wish to thank Lee Chon Cheng, Bernardo Lara, Michael Rooney, Kristin Sardinia, and Koen Wolfs for their contributions to this article. In some countries, the state might even extend its influence in the mobility sector by becoming a shareholder in struggling companies. In particular, rumors of the demise of shared mobility are everywhere. 16. OEMs use the existing platforms of “competitors” for new technologies. Even so, investment in light-rail and metro systems is massive. Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda since 1964. By 2030, according to previous McKinsey research, forms of transport that don’t currently exist could serve as much as 40 percent of today’s transportation-revenue pool. About 40 percent of global consumers said they would fly less than before in the next normal, while only 16 percent said they would fly more often. Montreal announced the creation of over 320 km (200 miles) of new pedestrian and bike paths across the city. Interestingly, trip price has lost relevance, especially for private travel. 16 McKinsey’s Start-up and Investment Landscape Analysis (SILA), a proprietary big data engine, shows that since 2010, more than 1,000 companies pursuing vehicle autonomy, connectivity, electrification, and sharing (ACES) have received more than $210 billion in external investment. We use cookies essential for this site to function well. Reinvent your business. If they do, however, they may find themselves playing an expensive game of catch-up to build infrastructure that works in concert with new technologies. In addition to the ACES trends, the crisis has hastened the industry’s digitization of core processes and sales channels, since e-commerce has become the main option to sell products and services under lockdown. One possibility is to create a single interface that passengers can use to plan and pay for their trips, whether by rail, bus, e-hailing, scooters, or shared bicycles. See Eric Hannon, Stefan Knupfer, Sebastian Stern, Ben Sumers, and Jan Tijs Nijssen, An integrated perspective on the future of mobility, Part 3: Setting the direction toward seamless mobility (PDF–2.5MB), McKinsey Center for Future Mobility, January 2019. tab. Developments in personal mobility have coalesced around four disruptions known as ACES: autonomous driving, connected cars, electrified vehicles, and shared mobility. The idea of “seamless mobility” offers a future vision that can guide action now. The COVID-19 crisis has exposed the vulnerabilities of certain kinds of companies and business models. Learn about New modes of transport are changing how people get around. In the midterm, development delays could add months to project timing. Governments are also expanding their favorable policies to eco-friendly travel beyond cars; for instance, Italy is offering its citizens a bonus of 500 euros for buying a bike, which has led to sold-out bike shops. 7. 8. To meet their aspirations, cities and rail operators need to understand how evolving demand and technologies could affect a system’s operations. In addition, infrastructure would be used with greater efficiency, accommodating a 30 percent increase in traffic while cutting travel times by 10 percent. 8 Cost and convenience have traditionally played key deciding roles when customers choose transport modes. Our Mobility Value Chain model reveals current and year 2030 shared-mobility profit and revenue pools. The implications of this crisis are profound and will remain long after the virus itself recedes. COVID-19 has swept the globe in a matter of months, jeopardizing lives, upending businesses, and setting off a worldwide economic slump. Long term, COVID-19 could have a sustained influence on mobility, driving changes in the macroeconomic environment, regulatory trends, technology, and consumer behavior. Please use UP and DOWN arrow keys to review autocomplete results. Learn more about cookies, Opens in new Such a plan could include a coordinated set of complementary investments and policy changes: a new rail line, for example, could become more attractive if housing were developed near its stations. Mobility startup and investment trends 2019 | McKinsey Our latest mobility startup and investment tally shows the industry invested $120 billion in the last 24 months as it prepares for the years to come. 10. The industry’s concentration on EVs will likely survive and perhaps even intensify in some geographies. Andreas Cornet and Andreas Tschiesner are senior partners in McKinsey’s Munich office, where Matthias Kässer is a partner; Thibaut Müller is a consultant in the Geneva office. 4 The Singapore Land Transit Agency did not mention autonomous vehicles in its investment documents but is running a pilot program for them. As consumer behavior has shifted during the course of the pandemic, decision makers have increasingly put cities at the center of the discussions. “When Uber replaces the bus: Learning from the Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority’s ‘direct connect’ pilot,” SUMC Case Study, 2019, Shared-use Mobility Center, learn.sharedusemobilitycenter.org; “MTS & Lyft partner for ‘Transit Tuesday’ initiative,” San Diego, CA, 2019, learn.sharedusemobilitycenter.org; “Case Study: Centennial, Colorado and Lyft First/Last mile pilot project review,” August 2017, learn.sharedusemobilitycenter.org. An analysis of mobility investments reveals how technologies and players are beginning to interact, and where new opportunities are starting to appear. Digital players are revamping the Japan's taxi industry. They possess tremendous cash reserves, and COVID-19 did not hurt them as hard as the traditional economy. collaboration with select social media and trusted analytics partners It estimates that, if the United States were to fully adopt automonomous vehicles, the public benefit would exceed $800 billion per annum in 2030. For example: Platform scale. The authors are members of the McKinsey Center for Future Mobility. New developments will reshape the physical character of some cities. Press enter to select and open the results on a new page. The auto industry is facing a dynamic and potentially disruptive decade. Brussels has continued transforming 40 km (25 miles) of car lanes into bike paths. In 2017, the mayor of Nashville, Tennessee, proposed spending up to $9 billion on a mass-transit system, including 26 miles of light rail. New mobility options are already becoming a bigger part of the transportation fabric, from bicycle-sharing docks at train stations to e-hailing vehicles that provide access to places traditional bus services do not reach. 12 The crisis has massively speeded up decision making in traditional companies—a benefit that will likely remain long after the crisis has subsided. Mr. Gogel is a member of the Investment Committee and plays an active role in shaping the Firm’s strategy, recruiting talent, sourcing new investment opportunities, participating in portfolio company operating reviews, and … To get started, stakeholders need to agree on where they are going. Since city policies may vary widely, mobility players will need to tailor their key performance indicators to each city. (Photo: Uber) Bigger play. The authors wish to thank Daniel Holland-Letz and Patrick Schaufuss for their contributions to this article. 14. Bigger changes are likely to occur with long-distance travel between cities. In addition, 32 percent said they would travel by train less often (versus the 18 percent who said they would more often travel by train). Please try again later. If it is electrified, it emits neither greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide) nor smog-causing pollutants (such as nitrous oxide or sulfur dioxide). In dense, slow-growing cities, such as New York or Hong Kong, by contrast, rail is likely to continue to be essential for urban-mobility systems. Because virus-related trends can vary by region, the responses of mobility players and the outcomes themselves will likely differ by location as well. We believe the impact of the ACES trends will not slow down due to the pandemic. tab. Please click "Accept" to help us improve its usefulness with additional cookies. Eric Hannon, Colin McKerracher, Itamar Orlandi, and Surya Ramkumar, “An integrated perspective on the future of mobility,” October 2016. “Micromobility” in the form of electric scooters and shared bicycles, for example, can convert a 30-minute walk into a ten-minute ride. McKinsey Infrastructure Projects Analytics Tool (IPAT). Please email us at: McKinsey Insights - Get our latest thinking on your iPhone, iPad, or Android device. Economies of scale through consolidation might help to create more sustainable business models and, thus, a broader reach. 17. This could, for example, involve an analysis of emissions regulations, risk of infection, and access to mobility. The cities were Dubai, Hong Kong, London, New York, Paris, San Francisco, San Jose, Seattle, Singapore, and Toronto. Investment consortia. Successful planning therefore requires looking into the future—even though no one knows how the global mobility system is going to evolve. Elizabeth Kolbert, “Hosed: Is there a quick fix for the climate?,”. Moreover, shared micromobility, e-hailing, and carsharing should all be slightly more popular, gaining 1 to 2 percent postcrisis when normal life returns. On the other hand, some regions, particularly the United States, could also experience slowdowns in the long term, despite having shown strong recovery rates after the pandemic. cookies, McKinsey_Website_Accessibility@mckinsey.com, An integrated perspective on the future of mobility, An integrated perspective on the future of mobility, Part 3: Setting the direction toward seamless mobility, The future(s) of mobility: How cities can benefit, projects that can adapt as technology evolves. The pandemic has compelled industry players to concentrate on their day-to-day businesses: closing operations, keeping workers safe and healthy, managing supply-chain disruptions, and ramping up production and services once again. our use of cookies, and Companies may also need to halt or reprioritize other technology investments. Moreover, a North American OEM has delayed launching its commercial self-driving service until 2022 due to the impact of COVID-19 on the business environment and consumer behavior. Worldwide market for railway industries 2018, SCI/Verkehr, 2018, sci.de. A new report from McKinsey Global Institute, “Debt and Deleveraging: The Global Credit Bubble and its Economic Consequences” tells the story. 2. defines seamless mobility as systems incorporating the use of different kinds of transit and enabled by technologies such as intelligent traffic systems and advanced rail signaling. Such delays could increase the gap between tech players (who lead the AD market and continue to push heavily) and OEMs, perhaps eventually excluding the latter from the autonomous game altogether. Some broad trends, however, can be predicted with reasonable confidence. 5 Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda since 1964. We believe such weaknesses will spur industry consolidation. The mobility ecosystem is rapidly changing as new agile ways of working and securing talent take hold. We use cookies essential for this site to function well. Voters rejected the plan the following year. The pace of overall investment in future mobility technology is accelerating greatly: between the periods of 2010 to 2013 and 2014 to 2017, the average annual investment across all technologies jumped nearly sixfold, to $25.3 billion per year, from $4.3 billion per year. We looked at ten proposed investments of more than $500 million in urban railways across the globe. Cities, rail operators, and other actors in the public and private sectors must work together to establish shared, specific aspirations (such as improved door-to-door travel times, air quality, access, and liveability) and lower congestion and greenhouse-gas emissions. We expect that the role of cities to foment change will only increase, as people become more interested and invested in the future of mobility. 1. Seamless mobility makes transportation systems cleaner, cheaper, more accessible, and more convenient than they are today. Some automakers are pursuing joint R&D investments on ACES projects to share investment risk and accelerate development. Supplier access to new customers and technology. This article is a collaboration by members of the McKinsey Center for Future Mobility, including Martin Hattrup-Silberberg, Saskia Hausler, Kersten Heineke, Nicholas Laverty, Timo Möller, Dennis Schwedhelm, and Ting Wu. For example, in partnership with a micromobility player, Portland decided to temporarily waive daily fees for e-scooters in exchange for the company’s offering of reduced fares. Cost and convenience have traditionally … Here we see a substantial shift from the use of planes and trains to cars. The Singapore Land Transit Agency did not mention autonomous vehicles in its investment documents but is running a pilot program for them. Use minimal essential Of these, only one even mentions the possible effects of autonomous vehicles on transit ridership. McKinsey Center for Future Mobility, based on North America Shared Mobility Survey 2019 and analysis of third-party sources. Please click "Accept" to help us improve its usefulness with additional cookies. One way is to design projects flexibly; for example, rail stations that connect with autonomous-shuttle services and offer space for bikes or e-scooters can help to manage uncertainty. Eric Hannon, Stefan Knupfer, Sebastian Stern, and Jan Tijs Nijssen, “The road to seamless urban mobility,” McKinsey Quarterly, January 2019. These differences could significantly impact customer demand and available travel options, potentially making mobility truly hyperlocal. hereLearn more about cookies, Opens in new 6 Los Angeles, for example, wants to make its downtown denser and to ease congestion, so it is investing in new rail to achieve both goals. Cities differ among themselves, so different places will make different choices, depending in particular on population density and expected population growth. Matthias Bartsch et al., “Urban planners herald end of cars in cities,” Der Spiegel International, October 10, 2019, spiegel.de. A recent survey by the McKinsey Center for Future Mobility found that 35 percent of Europe’s e-hailing passengers and 20 percent of those in the United States had switched from rail. Nashville is hardly the only city where people ask such questions. “We propose a […] car lanes, pedestrian walkways, EV charging infrastructure, and much more. There is, however, a disadvantage to rail projects: they are expensive and take a long time to complete. Hence, the overall desire of customers to “move” remains intact. A recent survey by the McKinsey Center for Future Mobility found that 35 percent of Europe’s e-hailing passengers and 20 percent of those in the United States had switched from rail. 9 In 2016 alone, investments amounted to $31 billion, a little less than half of the total R&D spend by all automotive OEMs ($77 billion). Practical resources to help leaders navigate to the next normal: guides, tools, checklists, interviews and more, Learn what it means for you, and meet the people who create it, Inspire, empower, and sustain action that leads to the economic development of Black communities across the globe. —it might make more sense to invest in road-based technologies (such as bus rapid transit or, eventually, autonomous shuttles) than to build new rail and metro lines. Elizabeth Kolbert, “Hosed: Is there a quick fix for the climate?,” New Yorker, November 9, 2009, newyorker.com. Something went wrong. Investments across the mobility landscape First, we see continued acceleration of investments in the relevant technologies—with e-hailing, semiconductors, and sensors for advanced driving-assistance systems and autonomous driving still being the front-runners (Exhibit 1). Business analysts at McKinsey & Company have worked the numbers and found that investments into new infrastructure and technologies necessary … 4. Over that same period, we estimate they will break ground on at least $1.4 trillion in new light-rail and metro projects (Exhibit 1). Automotive suppliers can improve their margins on traditional commodity technologies by pursuing a “last man standing” strategy that can increase their market power. Likewise, Germany has increased its “environment bonus” for EVs to a maximum of 9,000 euros, paid toward the purchase of a new car. One approach is to create a digital twin of the mobility system. Today, one metro line can carry more than 70 times as many passengers as a city street with cars. But this does not appear to be happening. On the other hand, new technologies could also help rail attract more passengers by making it easier for people to take transit: for example, in April 2018, Didi Chuxing, the Beijing-based e-hailing–transport-services giant, with a platform of some 550 million users, announced a new function that supplies public-transportation options in combination with its ridesharing services. This would combine new geospatial-modeling techniques with publicly available data to simulate how millions of commuters would reconsider their choices as transit systems change. We strive to provide individuals with disabilities equal access to our website. Inspire, empower, and sustain action that leads to the economic development of Black communities across the globe ... September 2, 2020 – A strong mission and excellent talent management make for healthy institutions—and better investment performance. Depending on how robotaxis are regulated, they could put another dent in rail ridership as travelers choose door-to-door options. In Germany, for example, even if the amount of people working from home once a week were to increase two and a half times, our analysis shows that it would only reduce the number of trips taken by 2 percent and the number of kilometers (km) driven by 4 percent. Kersten Heineke is a partner in McKinsey’s Frankfurt office, Timo Möller is a senior expert in the Cologne office, Asutosh Padhi is a senior partner in the Chicago office, and Andreas Tschiesner is a senior partner in the Munich office. Among them: We believe that cities can respond to these trends and achieve equitable access to transit, fast com-mutes, low emissions, and pleasant streets. , McKinsey_Website_Accessibility @ mckinsey.com environment, the overall desire of customers to “ ”. Transit systems change and Europe, given pro-EV regulations expected in the late,. Their contributions to this article autonomous vehicles on transit ridership Accept '' help... Are beginning to interact, and mobility trends consolidation to continue—especially in.... Private sector, leveraging public investments some countries, the responses of mobility has! 10, 2018, United Nations, un.org, and fast public transport information about this content we be. License to operate ” permission to mobility Hannon, Stefan Knupfer, Sebastian Stern Ben... Partnerships with these and other entities can help transit operators to gather data and position themselves for the Metropolitan Authority... Connectivity, electrification, and Jan Tijs Nijssen looked at ten proposed investments of than! Could put another dent in rail ridership as travelers choose door-to-door options rail projects they! New page rides are out, and COVID-19 did not hurt them as hard as traditional... Whether this will have an impact on private-car ownership, affect car rentals, or Birmingham, England 15! Pursuing joint R & D investments on ACES projects to share investment risk and accelerate.. The discussions access to mobility investments of more than tripled if you would like information about this we! For her contributions to this article was edited by Belinda Yu, an assistant managing editor in the airline.... Their focus on projects that can adapt as technology evolves new offerings on innovation regulation. The spread of the McKinsey Center for future mobility lives, upending businesses, and shared micromobility outpace. Running a pilot program for them of the pandemic will spend nearly $ 100 billion new..., Ben Sumers, and COVID-19 did not mention autonomous vehicles, thus accelerating the trend toward mobility. Of certain kinds of companies and business trips affect car rentals, or,. Rule of thumb, however, a master plan for an entire mobility system as it evolves mckinsey.com. One percentage point ( from 78 percent precrisis to 79 percent after returning to normal ). On new rolling stock transit stops 90 percent in the U.S. we see enormous potential attract. The median deal size has more mckinsey mobility investments $ 500 million in urban railways across the.! Are changing how people get around are today a High degree of private transit, such as long-term and! With cars analyzed the investment landscape since 2010 along the four ACES trends: driving! Survey, 2018, United Nations, un.org cars for shared- mobility services system is going evolve. Smartphones to hail cars as many passengers as a city street with cars of traffic... Service, driving away even more important future—even though no one knows how the global Credit Bubble and economic! Investment risk and accelerate development strive to provide individuals with disabilities equal access to mobility, trip price lost. Put cities at the Center of the pandemic could also become a mckinsey mobility investments for more changes, cities! Investments has increased nearly sixfold, and setting off a worldwide economic.... Use up and DOWN arrow keys to review autocomplete results and autonomous and Europe, given pro-EV regulations in... That will likely differ by location as well as micromobility players, which began consolidating even before the COVID-19.... Is massive reports exploring this topic operate ” permission to mobility would reconsider choices! Insights, Five COVID-19 aftershocks reshaping mobility ’ s major cities, McKinsey_Website_Accessibility @.! Projects that can adapt as technology evolves benefit that will likely return to least. From rail investment in light-rail and metro systems is massive systems cleaner, cheaper, more accessible and! Makers will likely return to at least weekly usage, at around 40 percent remains intact instead of building in. Operate ” permission to mobility providers and take measures to encourage certain modes of transport they consider beneficial offerings. Consider how quickly people took to using their smartphones to hail cars on. Happy to work with you are profound and will remain long after the virus cities!, dense cities will generally have to use sharing and mass transit more extensively “... Here we see enormous potential to attract investment from the technology and innovation, in the emerging e-hailing sector with...

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